This study was conducted to investigate the difference between small mammal community and habitat structure. We examined the composition of three small mammal species, Korean field mouse (Apodemus peninsulae), Korean red-backed vole (Myodes regulus), and striped field mouse (A. agrarius), and a habitat structure of unburned and burned stands resulting from two different post-fire silvicultural management practices (pine plantation and naturally restored stands) within a pine forest in South Korea. We captured small mammal using a live-trapping method and measured the habitat variables of different vertical layers data at each stand in June and July 2004, 2008 and 2016. The habitat structure changed dramatically depending on the post-fire silvicultural practices. Coverage of vegetation was significantly different among study areas and between years. Especially the coverage of overstory and midstory were dramatically increased in post-burned untreated stands (naturally restored). The composition of three small mammal species was different among study areas. The two silvicultural management practices showed a significant difference in small mammal compositions between years. A. agrarius increased in post-burned pine plantation stands and M. regulus increased in post-burned naturally restored stands, although the unburned stands showed a similar composition of small mammal species. The post-fire practices in burned stands should be re-evaluated because of vegetative changes according to silvicultural management may affect small mammal community by altering habitat structure. Therefore, the effects of post-fire practices and long-term experiments are needed for forest management strategies after forest fires.