There are two species of Canidae in Australia. Both are relatively recent additions to the vertebrate fauna, which is primarily marsupial. Dingoes and other free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) are adaptable, occupying niches in urban to alpine environments across the continent. The equally generalist European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is widespread but its northern range is coincident with the fluctuating northern boundary of the rabbit. Dingoes and foxes are sympatric in many of Australia's diverse ecosystems and their functions are debated. Here we draw on data from previous and current research to review the ecological roles that the two eutherian carnivores can fill in Australian ecosystems. We discuss their co-occurrence and make suggestions for their management in relation to their impacts and interactions, appropriate scales of effective management and ethical considerations.