We are in an era of Anthropocene; humans have modified the Earth's landscapes. Mammals have to cope with the new problems in the anthropogenic landscape. First, their habitat is often fragmented, migration routes are blocked and their population sizes are small; second, many larger mammals are hunted by humans because human are replacing the role of top mammal predators in many ecosystems or replacing the wild ungulates in grassland ecosystems with domestic animals; humans exploit wild ungulates, whales and dolphins as source of protein or fur; on the other hand, rodents become androphile species and thrive in an anthropogenic landscape. I will present the case of fates of mammals in China – a country with mega biodiversity and rich endemic fauna and flora. I will talk about how the once extinct Milu (Elaphurus davidianus, also called Père David’s deer) was reintroduced to China in the 1980s and revived with human assisted survival and dispersal in contrast to the example of unsuccessful reintroduction of saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). I will explore the invasion and successfully establishment of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) as a typical case of mammal invasion facilitated by transportation development in western China and invasion of American mink (Neovison vison) in Mt. Altai region, Xinjiang, China, a place which is the most distant location to the ocean of anywhere on earth. Finally, I will summarise how humans can help mammals in peril while managing invasive, overabundant and androphile species.