The olive mouse Abrothrix olivacea has a large distribution in southern South America. It occupies a variety of contrasting environments, in particular in terms of water availability and vegetation cover (e.g. humid Valdivian forests and Mediterranean scrublands in central Chile, arid steppes in Patagonia). With an RNA-seq approach, we assessed renal gene expression profiles as a way to understand how the olive mouse faces this environmental variability. After showing that expression profiles vary in natural populations facing distinct environmental conditions, our interest is to evaluate if the olive mouse can modulate or not gene expression profiles. Here we present results of comparisons of gene expression profiles occurring in natural (i.e. tissues collected in the field) and controlled (i.e. tissues from acclimated specimens) conditions. Genes with significant differential expression among treatments are involved in biological regulation and distinct metabolic processes. Financial support: FONDECYT 1141055.