This study was conducted to clarify differences between small mammal community and habitat structure. Small mammals were captured ten consecutive nights from nine study plots in each of the three different stands in Phou Khao Khauy National Protected Area, Lao PDR. We used a capture-mark and release, using live-trapping method. In addition, the data collected for nine factors were related to the forest structure of the study plots. Five species and 456 individuals of small mammals were captured in the rainy season and the dry season. Total number of individuals captured from the natural forest stand area was the highest. The number of individuals captured from the post-burned rubber plantation stand was the lowest. This result showed that the post-burned rubber plantation stand can have negatives effect on habitat condition for small mammal communities. The home range size of the individuals captured in the nature forest stand was smaller than that in the post-burned rice field stands. The home range size of individuals captured in the post-burned rubber plantation stand was the smallest. The home range size was larger in the rainy season and smaller in the dry season. It showed that in the dry season, food quantity and quality are suitable than in rainy season. In the forest, variables were significant in relationships between the numbers of small mammal individuals. This result showed that forest composition has an influence on small mammal communities and variations in small mammal species require different forest values for communities.