We examined human and ecological attributes of attacks by tigers Panthera tigris and leopards Panthera pardus on humans in and around the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in central India and implemented a series of interventions to prevent or mitigate conflicts between people and large carnivores. During 2005–2011, 132 carnivore attacks on humans occurred, 71 (54%) of which were lethal to humans. Tigers and leopards were responsible for 78% and 22% of these attacks, respectively. Significantly, more victims were attacked while collecting firewood than during other activities. The number of attacks has declined in the ensuing five years, partly as a response to interventions to change the behaviour of people entering the forest.