Reproduction and survival was studied in a free-ranging population of burrowing bettongs (Bettongia lesueur) at Heirisson Prong, Shark Bay Western Australia. A total of 189 pouch young were observed (93 male, 76 female, 20 unsexed). Age-specific survival indicated that males consistently showed a lower survival rate than females regardless of age and young at foot and sub-adults were at highest risk of mortality for both sexes. Pouch young and adult survival was high (77.8% and > 90% respectively). The age at which females gave birth to their first pouch young was estimated to be 215 days (± 10; n = 13) corresponding with sexual maturity at approximately 6.5 months of age. The average fecundity for adult females was 1.30 pouch young (± 0.07, n = 43) over six months which is below the theoretical potential of three pouch young annually.