Neotropical deer species have a broad geographic range in vulnerable Latino America ecosystems. Habitat destruction and over hunting have limited deer species to a portion of their former range. Our aim was to perform a review of the current situation of the neotropical deer taxa updating the taxonomy, ecological and conservation situation. Currently, there are 17 cervid species, grouped into six genera: Blastocerus, Hippocamelus, Mazama, Odocoileus, Ozotoceros, and Pudu. The comparative analysis of the complete cytochrome b gene revealed two clades with different evolutionary histories. The use of molecular genetic markers provides evidence to reconsider taxonomic issues. We found that Mazama and Hippocamelus are not monophyletic genera, having both cryptic morphological species. Particularly under the red brocket deer species need to be described at least two new species and assess geographic range and populations status. Based on the latest Red List™, and Global Mammal Assessment, 58% of the 17 species of Neotropical deer species are threatened and 18% are data deficient. This means that the currently ten species are categorised as endangered, with the updated taxonomical analysis would increase, important to develop conservation management plans for in situ and captive breeding programs.