Pangolins (Pholidota: Manidae) are the world’s most trafficked wild mammals, with more than a million individuals estimated to have been poached and illegally traded in the past decade. The eight extant species of pangolin have all been assessed as threatened on the IUCN Red List (two Critically Endangered and two Endangered in Asia; four Vulnerable in Africa) on the basis of estimated population declines due primarily to over-exploitation for their meat, skin and scales. An entire mammalian order, representing 80 million years of unique evolutionary history, is at risk of extinction. This presentation will provide an overview of the status and threats facing pangolins, with particular reference to the drivers of over-exploitation and impact of use and trade on wild populations. It will also examine conservation actions undertaken to date, including a review of current attention and investment in pangolin conservation and an overview of the multi-faceted interventions needed to secure the conservation of pangolins in the future.